||I have continued my field research in farming villages where refugees and returnees live in Zambia and Angola. Many countries in southern Africa have experienced prolonged conflicts, but many of the people have already rebuilt their lives in farming communities. Therefore, it is difficult to identify refugees and returnees among the villagers. However, once I started relating to them on a personal level for a long time, their unbearable experience of escape behind peaceful everyday life and new challenges in modern southern Africa came to be visible. I will seek to elucidate reality of their situation from the livelihood activities.